How to design Integrated Photovoltaic Building (BIPV) system?

How to design? It includes the following steps:

Consider applying energy conscious design practices and/or energy conservation measures to reduce the energy needs of buildings. This will improve comfort and save money, as well as allow specific BIPV systems to contribute a greater percentage of the load.

Choose between a utility interactive PV system and a stand-alone PV system. The vast majority of BIPV systems will be connected to the utility grid, using the grid for storage and backup. The size of these systems should meet the goals of the owner -- usually defined by budget or space constraints; ​moreover, the inverter must be selected with an understanding of the utility requirements. For those "standalone" systems powered only by PV, the size of the system (including storage) must meet the peak demand/minimum generation forecast for the building. To avoid the PV/cell system being oversized at unusual or occasional peak loads, backup generators are often used. Such systems are sometimes referred to as "PV/generator hybrid".

Provide adequate ventilation. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency will decrease with the increase of operating temperature. The case of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells is more realistic than that of amorphous silicon films. To improve conversion efficiency, allow proper ventilation behind the assembly to dissipate heat. The use of custom solar cables can also improve conversion efficiency.

1692dcb4b9f42c766eb48b0ead164b76Evaluate the use of hybrid PV - solar thermal systems. As an option to optimize the efficiency of the system, the designer may choose to capture and utilize the solar thermal resources developed through module heating. In cold climates, this is attractive for preheating incoming ventilated supply air.

Consider combining daylight lighting with photovoltaic harvesting. Using translucent film components, or crystal components with custom intervals between two layers of glass, designers can utilize photovoltaics to create unique daylight lighting features in exterior walls, roof or skylight photovoltaic systems. BIPV elements can also help reduce unnecessary cooling loads and glare associated with large areas of building glazing.

Incorporate photovoltaic modules into shading equipment. The PV array is designed as an awning for the glass areas of the building, which can provide appropriate passive shading. When the visor is considered as part of a comprehensive design approach, the capacity of the cooler can often be smaller and the surrounding cooling distribution can be reduced or even eliminated.

Design for the local climate and environment. Designers should be aware of the effects of climate and environment on array output. Cold, clear weather increases the amount of electricity generated, while hot, cloudy weather reduces the array's output.

Consider the orientation of the array. Different array orientations can have a significant impact on the annual energy output of the system, with tilted arrays producing 50% to 70% more power than vertical planes.

A professional. The use of BIPV is relatively new. Ensure that the professionals involved in the design, installation, and maintenance of the project are properly trained, licensed, certified, and experienced in working with PV systems.​

Choose the form of a photovoltaic building. Photovoltaic building integration (BIPV) has the following forms:

Roof cover: Flexible solar panels or glass solar panels are commonly placed on the roof to generate electricity.
Add to the roof: Place the solar panels on the roof in splices or use smaller panels similar to shingles.
Exterior wall: Inlaid or mounted to an exterior wall to provide shelter from wind and rain.
Glass Windows: The Windows are open and ventilated, which can be extended to the right angle of direct sunlight.